Assam has a rich cultural heritage and one of the top biodiversity hotspot in India along with one of the top 5 places of Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands. The rare and endangered endemic wildlife and wild animals of Assam includes Great One-Horned Rhinoceroses, Hoolock Gibbon,Wild Water Buffalo,Hog Deer,Golden Langur and Ganges Dolphin.
Big Cats are the largest felid species and all great cats are carnivores and efficient apex predators. Kaziranga and Manas are few wild breeding areas in Assam and home to maximum number of big cats in India, such as Indian Tigers,Indian Leopard,Clouded Leopard and the Black Panther.
Grassland of Kaziranga National Park of Assam is home to large breeding populations of swamp deer,sambar, Indian muntjac, wild boar and hog deer. Out of 13 species of deer, 5 species of deer found in Assam and also has significant populations of large herbivores of Barasingha.
The national parks of Assam host two of the largest snakes in the world, the reticulated python and rock python. Indian rock python occurs in a wide range of habitats, including grasslands, swamps and marshes, They are excellent swimmers and are quite at home in water.
Manas National Park and Kaziranga National Park savanna and grasslands provides shelter to endangered endemic wild water buffalo. Kaziranga has the largest population of the Wild water buffalo anywhere of the world population and has significant populations of large herbivores bovine family of Gayal and Gaur also called Indian bison.
Kaziranga was once home to seven species of vultures but now a days only the Indian vulture, slender-billed vulture, and Indian white-rumped vulture have survived. The white-rumped vulture and slender-billed vulture are two species of Old World vulture falls in the critically endangered species.
Protected areas of Assam is home to 9 out of the 14 primate species found in India,few among them are the Assamese macaque, capped and golden langur and the only ape found in India, the hoolock gibbon. Golden langur is found in a small region of western Assam and one of the most endangered primate species of India.
Dibru-Saikhowa National Park alone is home to largest species of wild cats in India, the felids include the jungle cat, golden cat, fishing cat, and leopard cat. Seven cat species all live in a single Indian rain forest Dibru-Saikhowa National Park.
Orang National Park located on the north bank of the Brahmaputra River is home to seven species of turtle and tortoise. Kaziranga National Park includes fifteen species of turtle, the endemic Assam roofed turtle and one species of tortoise, the brown tortoise.
The Biodiversity of Assam hosts more than 450 species of birds, Few of the major birds in Assam are Blue-throated Barbet,White-winged Wood Duck,Ring-tailed Fishing Eagle,Great Pied Hornbill, Himalayan Flameback Woodpecker and endangered Bengal florican. Other families of birds inhabiting Kaziranga include the weaver birds,wreathed hornbill, Old World babblers, Migratory Birds,Riverine Birds and Birds of Prey.