Humans now the greatest threat to Earth, are destroying the planet and has killed 80% of all wild mammals, plants and marine life. Habitat destruction is the direct loss of Indian wildlife by removal of trees, polluting the rivers, leading the human wildlife conflict along with list of major environmental issues.
Natural floods are another killer of India’s wildlife, Floods in Assam put the life of wild Indian animals of Kaziranga National Park in danger.
Deforestation or removal of a forest for urban use and plantation is the biggest threat to the wildlife of India, India is one of the top 10 countries in the world in the amount of forest loss in 2009, affected the wild animals and birds.
Habitat destruction by human activity like mining for natural resources is one of the primary cause of wild species extinction in India and disturbance of ecosystem.
Poaching is one of the way of illegal hunting of wild animals for trophies, Ivory, Fur of several animals and claw. Top endangered species of India like elephants, tiger and Rhino are prime target of poaching in India for wildlife trade.
Hunting or killing of wild animals for food, recreation and bush meat is the illegal killing. Killing and hinting of India’s majestic wild animals is not only an environmental crime but also a threat to the wildlife cycle.
Over last few decade, Roadkill have become a new enemy of India’s wildlife, as number of wild animals killed by motor vehicles on highways. Lack of prey pushing the Indian wild animals towards the cities along with new highways passing through the jungle.
Railway Tracks in India cross list of wildlife sanctuary and jungles, Chapramari track in West Bengal killed 17 Indian elephants in 2013 plus there are list of several incidents where wild animals have been killed by trains in India.
Electric fence is used today for agricultural fencing and other security sensitive places to control the movements of wild animals. Death of animals in India increasing due to Electrocution, like reported from Odisha lost 179 elephants, Tiger deaths by electrocution in Maharashtra, Leopards die after being electrocuted in Gujarat and Karnataka.
These fences are illegal and forcing the wildlife to change their natural route of migration. Maximum electrocution cases of animals in India are elephants, sloth bear, tiger, leopard and bird species.
Like most of the countries, India is also struggling with the quantities of plastic waste generated by human. India as a big country is facing massive waste management challenge due to Plastic Pollution and leading to killing of sacred cows, wild elephants, birds and disposal of plastic in the ocean offering direct and deadly effect on wildlife.
Feral Dogs, stray dog or Street dogs of India is one of the major problem to wildlife as well as residents. There are millions of domestic desi breed of dogs found living across rural India, attacking species of Indian wild animals and also carriers of diseases that transmitted to wolf, dhole and jackal canids even mating with wolf in Ladakh.
Dumping grounds or landfill sites around the major Indian cities are not only threat to wildlife but also to residents. Deonar landfill of Mumbai is the largest dumping ground in India, Boragaon dumping site of Assam is home to Greater Adjutant, and top tourist destinations like Manali and Ladakh are becoming the biggest dumping ground in India.
Forest destruction offering wood products and cheap timber to the world, India has lost millions of hectares forest cover in the past few years and the same known as development, creating the biggest threat to Indian wild animals.
Urban wildlife is a new home of India’s wild animals such as venomous snakes, leopards live alongside people also known as Urban Leopard, langurs and monkey of Jaipur,pride of eight lions roaming around human habitat in Gujarat and numerous animals also live within buildings or premises.
Human wildlife conflict in India is the result of habitat loss,degradation of habitat, loss of prey and growing human population. Attacks of leopard in India are still common and there were cases of man eater tigers of Sundarbans,Wild Elephant attacks in Kerala, bear attack in Chhattisgarh and millions of snakebite cases in India.
Environmental issues in India is a big challenge, Though we have made some of the fastest progress addressing the issues with garbage and pollution, air pollution and water pollution but agree there is a long way to go to reach environmental quality, better health and opportunity of saving India’s wildlife.
Recycling and reuse of plastic materials will reduce the environmental impacts, Also open-air burning should avoid, banned plastic bags, use only biodegradable plastic.
Legal efforts at source like the company making packed food should be responsible for the wrappers,plastic covers for wrapping foods, e-commerce websites should take care of item covered with plastic means like Tax Deducted at Source (TDS) same (Plastic Generated at Source – PGS) Source Should Take care of Its Product Wrappers, Bottle and Cover as Well).